Regimes of land tenure and ownership must form significant elements in the development of ports. How quickly do these regimes change? What are the processes by which title deeds are issued, exchanged, bought, and sold? Are there demonstrable differences between the land tenure regimes in the different countries of the Middle East? And differences between coastal areas and hinterlands? Does the fact that oil companies were significant actors in the making of many ports in the Gulf affect the development of these ports?